Biofuels are liquid or gaseous transport fuels such as biodiesel and bioethanol which are made from biomass.
Biofuels (conventional)Biofuels are produced from food and feed crops.
Biofuels (advanced)Biofuels produced from a positive list of feedstock (mostly wastes and residues) set out in Part A of Annex IX of Directive (EU) 2018/2001.
Cap and TradeThe EU ETS is a ‘cap and trade’ system. This means that it sets an overall limit (a ‘cap’) on the total volume of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that installations in the covered sectors can cumulatively emit. The reduction targets set for the EU ETS sectors by EU policymakers are achieved through the gradual lowering of this cap.

Common Agricultural Policy Regionalised Impact model: a global multi- country agricultural sector model, supporting decision making related to the Common Agricultural Policy and environmental policy.
Carbon leakageCarbon leakage is the hypothetical situation that European companies competing at international level would shift their production and/or investments (and pollution) to countries with less stringent or no climate policies. Theoretically, this could even result in higher GHG emissions.
Carbon border adjustment mechanism

Carbon contract for difference

Carbon Capture and Storage: a set of technologies aimed at capturing, transporting, and storing CO2 emitted from power plants and industrial facilities. The goal of CCS is to prevent CO2 from reaching the atmosphere, by storing it in suitable underground geological formations.

Carbon Capture and Utilisation: the process of capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) to be recycled for further usage.

Connecting Europe Facility: an EU funding instrument to promote growth, jobs and competitiveness through targeted infrastructure investment at European level.

Computable General Equilibrium: a family of economic models.

Combined Heat and Power: a combined heat and power unit is an installation in which energy released from fuel combustion is partly used for generating electrical energy and partly for supplying heat for various purposes.

Carbon leakage exposure factor: a factor that determines how much free allocation a sector or sub-sector may obtain. It depends on whether the sector or sub-sector is deemed to be at risk of carbon leakage or not.

Carbon leakage indicator: a number that indicates to which extent a sector or subsector is deemed to be at risk of carbon leakage. It is calculated by multiplying the trade intensity with the emission intensity.

Carbon dioxide-equivalent: a measure used to compare quantities of different greenhouse gases in a common unit on the basis of their global warming potential over a given time period.
Conference of the Parties: decision-making body of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (see UNFCCC)

Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation
COVID-19Coronavirus disease: a global pandemic caused by a coronavirus unknown before the outbreak began in Wuhan, China, in December 2019.
CSCFCross-sectoral correction factor: a factor by which free allocation of emission allowances is reduced in a uniform manner across all industry sectors, if the demand for free allocation exceeds the total amount of available free allowances
CTP2030 Climate Target Plan
DG ECFINDirectorate General Economic and Financial Affairs
EBITDAEarnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation, and Amortisation
EEAEuropean Economic Area
EEDEnergy Efficiency Directive: Directive 2012/27/EU and amending Directive 2018/2002/EU
E-fuelsLiquid fuels produced on the basis of hydrogen obtained from electricity via electrolysis
EIBEuropean Investment Bank
EPBDEnergy Performance of Buildings Directive
ERDFEuropean Regional Development Fund
ESREffort Sharing Regulation: Regulation 2018/842/EU
ETDEnergy Taxation Directive: Directive 2003/96/EC
ETSEmissions Trading System
EU, EU-27European Union with 27 Member States since 1 February 2020
EU-28European Union with 28 Member States from 1 July 2013 to 31 January
EUAEuropean Union allowance: the tradable unit under the EU ETS, giving the holder the right to emit one tonne of CO2-eq
EUTLEuropean Union Transaction Log: central transaction log, run by the European Commission, which checks, records and authorises all transactions between accounts in the Union Registry (see also EU ETS, NIMs)
Free allocationUnder the Emissions Trading System, free emissions allowances are the mechanism to protect industry and aviation from the presumed but unproven risk of carbon leakage.
GAINSGreenhouse gas and Air Pollution Information and Simulation model
GDPGross Domestic Product
GEM-E3General Equilibrium Model for Energy Economy Environment interactions: a computable general equilibrium model, version operated by E3Modelling, a company
GHGGreenhouse gas
GLOBIOMGlobal Biosphere Management Model: a model for land use of agriculture, bioenergy, and forestry.
GTGross Tonnage
GWhGigawatt hours
IAImpact assessment
ICAOInternational Civil Aviation Organisation
IEAInternational Energy Agency
IFInnovation fund
IMOInternational Maritime Organization
JRCJoint Research Centre of the European Commission
JRC-GEM-E3General Equilibrium Model for Energy Economy Environment interactions: a computable general equilibrium model, version operated by the JRC
LDCLeast developed countries
LRFLinear Reduction Factor: a factor by which the overall emissions cap of the ETS is reduced yearly
LULUCFLand Use, Land-Use Change, and Forestry
MACCMarginal abatement cost curve
MMFMultiannual Financial Framework
MRVMonitoring, reporting and verification
MSEU Member State(s)
MSRMarket stability reserve
MtCO2Million tonnes of CO2
MWhMegawatt hours
NACEStatistical classification of economic activities in the European Community (from the French nomenclature statistique des activités économiques dans la Communauté européenne)
NECPNational Energy And Climate Plan
NIMsNational implementation measures, submitted under Article 11 of the ETS Directive
NPVNet Present Value
OPCOpen Public Consultation
PRIMESPrice-Induced Market Equilibrium System: an energy system model for the European Union.
PRIMES-TREMOVEModel for the transport sector, integrated in the PRIMES model.
RED / RED IIRenewable Energy Directives 2009/28/EC and 2018/2001/EU (recast)
RESRenewable Energy Sources
SIDSSmall island developing states
SMESmall and Medium-sized Enterprise
SMSSSustainable and Smart Mobility Strategy
SWDStaff working document
TEN-ETrans-European Networks for Energy
TNACTotal number of allowances in circulation
UNFCCCUnited Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
VATValue Added Tax
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LifeETX is implemented by a consortium of 10 NGOs working at national and European level